ASTM-D describes the standard practice for performance testing of shipping containers and systems. It provides a guide for the evaluation of shipping units. 1 Oct 1) ASTM D – Historical Perspective. – Review of Protective Package Testing Protocols, pre-ASTM D – Overview and Significance of. Among the oldest package integrity tests. • Referred to as “non-simulation” test. • Not item-by-item comparable with ASTM. • ASTM D Distribution Cycle 2.
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Upon comparison of recorded information versus distribution cycles in Dit was noted that test schedules in astm d4169 distribution cycles did not reflect the same information as recorded during the study.
For an average level of assurance, one may use Level Astm d4169 with medium test intensities; for highest level of assurance, Level I; and for the lowest level of assurance, Level III. Conclusion D has been rigorously analyzed ever since it was astm d4169 over 20 years ago, and has occupied a fixed location on every D10 meeting agenda since.
In the early s, the performance approach was being astm d4169 in a number of new fields and the late W. Use of D The following shows how D performance tests are applied to measure the adequacy of packaging for a consumer product. A more dire situation was the usual practice of not testing packages at all as shippers relied on abbreviated transportation rules that in most cases specify minimum container strength only and no details on interior protective packaging.
Within the specified requirements of a performance standard, producers may use their ingenuity to produce a product that is astm d4169 cost-effective and safe. D Terminology of Packaging and Distribution Environments.
This is accomplished by subjecting them to astm d4169 test plan consisting of a sequence of anticipated hazard elements encountered in various distribution cycles.
ASTM Packaging Standard D
All DCs utilize standard ASTM test methods as the basis of test astm d4169 that simulate specific hazard elements such as rough handling, vibration or warehouse stacking.
Historical Version s – view previous versions of standard. If used for other purposes, such as package development, it may be useful to open and inspect shipping units at various times throughout the sequence. It is a systematic way to 1 define the desired attributes of an item i.
The tests should be performed sequentially on the same containers in the order given. Even further flexibility in application of D is available when astm d4169 develop a good understanding of their distribution systems, but find that it is not truly represented by any astm d4169 the standard distribution cycles.
Referenced Documents purchase separately The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
It provides astm d4169 uniform basis for evaluation in the laboratory by subjecting shipping containers to a test astm d4169 of anticipated hazard elements encountered in the distribution environment.
It turned out to be the most momentous task ever undertaken by D10, finally achieving full approval as D in due in no small part to astm d4169 group co-leaders Fred Ostrem and W. Each hazard element is simulated by astm d4169 ASTM test method, and a series of tests, specific to a particular type of distribution, are conducted in sequence with the packaging unopened for inspection until completion of testing.
The practice has a number of attributes appealing astm d4169 a widely varied group of potential users.
D furnishes packaging designers with a method for predicting the performance of new or redesigned packages when distributed by any mode of transport. For use as a performance test, this practice requires astm d4169 the shipping unit tested remain unopened until the sequence of tests are completed.
Chief among these attributes are a list of 18 distribution cycles, or DCs, containing astm d4169 variety of package forms and carriers from which users can select the one representing their particular need. Annother Distribution Cycle that astm d4169 sometimes used when air transport will not be used in the distribution d469 is DC3, and it shown below.
This is accomplished by subjecting them to a test plan consisting of a sequence of anticipated hazard elements encountered in various distribution cycles.
The astm d4169 debates on test levels at times reached great heights of fervor, but eventually the co-leaders were able to achieve acceptance of a standard that is truly a product of the consensus process. Results of the study indicated some higher impacts astm d4169 [ mm] equivalent drop height than normally expected for the astm d4169 [15 kg] package and a number of lower impacts.
The following shows how D performance tests are applied to measure the adequacy of packaging for a consumer product.
A sequence of test schedules make up the test plan for each DC. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. There were no reported instances of containers crushed due to excessive compressive force, and orientation during shipment was astm d4169 always upright.
Work Item s – proposed revisions of this standard. Link to Active This astm d4169 will always route to the current Active version of astm d4169 standard. Some DCs are for single shipping containers while others cover unitized loads such as palletized boxes. When other organizations showed little interest in doing astm d4169, Newman used his position as the chairman of Committee D10 in to form a task group for developing a performance standard for shipping containers and systems.
Each of these test methods evaluated some particular quality of the package, but no overall relationship to the distribution environment existed. There is general agreement within government and industry that performance standards are more likely to encourage innovative designs and less likely to restrain competitive product development astm d4169 standards that specify materials or design methods.
For sstm information visit www. Another unique feature of D is its flexibility in determining test intensity. The decision was then made to employ DC 2, aztm defined environment, user specified, and astm d4169 a test plan similar to DC 3, single package by truck, up to pounds [45 kg], but modified by the recorded information.
Astm d4169 may, however, astm d4169 evaluating the influence of the container closure on container performance. If used zstm other purposes, such as package development, it may be useful to open and inspect shipping units at various times throughout the sequence. Testing parameters such as intensity or duration were often at significantly higher levels than expected in actual shipments, and new package specimens were used for each test.
Prior to the availability of Dif any testing was performed, packaging designers typically followed one or more standard test methods to check the strength, durability and protective capability of the package they were developing.
For use astm d4169 a performance test, this practice requires that the shipping unit tested remain ashm until astm d4169 sequence of tests are completed. D has been rigorously analyzed ever since it was approved over 20 years ago, and has occupied a fixed location on every D10 meeting agenda since.